Background: Active surveillance (AS) is a management option for men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer. Opinions differ on whether it is safe to include young men (≤60 yr) or men with intermediate-risk disease.
Objective: To assess whether reasons for discontinuation, treatment choice after AS, and adverse pathology at radical prostatectomy (RP; N1, or ≥GG3, or ≥pT3) differ for men ≤60 yr or those with European Association of Urology (EAU) intermediate-risk disease from those for men >60 yr or those with EAU low-risk disease.
Design, setting, and participants: We analyzed data from 5411 men ≤60 yr and 14 959 men >60 yr, 14 064 men with low-risk cancer, and 2441 men with intermediate-risk cancer, originating from the GAP3 database (21 169 patients/27 cohorts worldwide).
Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Cumulative incidence curves were used to estimate the rates of AS discontinuation and treatment choice.
Results and limitations: The probability of discontinuation of AS due to disease progression at 5 yr was similar for men aged ≤60 yr (22%) and those >60 yr (25%), as well as those of any age with low-risk disease (24%) versus those with intermediate-risk disease (24%). Men with intermediate-risk disease are more prone to discontinue AS without evidence of progression than men with low-risk disease (at 1/5 yr: 5.9%/14.2% vs 2.0%/8.8%). Adverse pathology at RP was observed in 32% of men ≤60 yr compared with 36% of men >60 yr (p = 0.029), and in 34% with low-risk disease compared with 40% with intermediate-risk disease (p = 0.048).
Conclusions: Our descriptive analysis of AS practices worldwide showed that the risk of progression during AS is similar across the age and risk groups studied. The proportion of adverse pathology was higher among men >60 yr than among men ≤60 yr. These results suggest that men ≤60 yr and those with EAU intermediate-risk disease should not be excluded from opting for AS as initial management.
Patient summary: Data from 27 international centers reflecting daily clinical practice suggest that younger men or men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer do not hold greater risk for disease progression during active surveillance.
Reference: Sebastiaan Remmers, Jozien Helleman, Daan Nieboer, Bruce Trock, Matthew E. Hyndman, Caroline M. Moore, Vincent Gnanapragasam, Lui Shiong Lee, Oussama Elhage, Laurence Klotz, Peter Carroll, Tom Pickles, Anders Bjartell, Grégoire Robert, Mark Frydenberg, Mikio Sugimoto, Behfar Ehdaie, Todd M. Morgan, Jose Rubio-Briones, Axel Semjonow, Chris H. Bangma, Monique J. Roobol, Active Surveillance for Men Younger than 60 Years or with Intermediate-risk Localized Prostate Cancer. Descriptive Analyses of Clinical Practice in the Movember GAP3 Initiative,
European Urology Open Science, Volume 41, 2022, Pages 126-133, ISSN 2666-1683, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2022.05.012.