Purpose of review: To provide an overview of the recent literature on RNA-based molecular urine assays for the diagnosis and surveillance of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Recent findings: Articles were eligible for inclusion if performance metrics sensitivity, specificity, and negative-predictive value (NPV) were reported or could be calculated. Only prospective studies published between 2020-2022 were included. Five out of fourteen studies addressed the primary diagnostic setting; the proportion of gross hematuria patients in all study populations was >50%. Only one study reported performance metrics within a microscopic hematuria subgroup. This study evaluated Xpert Bladder and reported a sensitivity: 73%, specificity: 84%, NPV: 99%, and PPV: 12%. Ten studies assessed test performance during surveillance for NMIBC. For the detection of high-grade (HG) and high-risk (HR) NMIBC, sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV varied between 78-100%, 64-89%, 97.0-99.7%, and 9.2-39%.
References: Pijpers OM, de Jong JJ, Zuiverloon TCM, Boormans JL. RNA-based urinary assays for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2022 Sep 1;32(5):523-530. doi: 10.1097/MOU.0000000000001018. PMID: 35916010.