Hematuria (i.e. blood in urine) can be a sign of serious underlying disease (including malignancy) and is reason for referral to a urology clinic. With it’s high prevalence in the general population, approximately 10-20% of all visits to the urologist comprise referrals for hematuria. Clinical guidelines recommend a visual inspection of the bladder by cystoscopy in nearly all hematuria patients to rule out the presence of a bladder tumor. However, the incidence of bladder cancer among hematuria patients ranges from 2-20%, meaning that the majority of patients presenting with hematuria does not have bladder cancer. To tackle this clinical problem, our group has developed several urine-based molecular assays to triage patients with hematuria for cystoscopy. Furthermore, we are currently investigating whether our molecular assays could be used for follow-up in patients that have been with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.